Application Notes – Voltage & Resistance

AN102: How to Properly Zero a Kelvin Klip

To insure proper operation of an instrument with Kelvin Klips, a short (zero) verification should be part of your standard work practices.


AN103: Real Time Wire Plating Thickness Measurement

This application note describes how a customer used the TEGAM Model 1750 High-Speed Programmable Microohmmeter to control the silver plating thickness of copper wire in real-time.


AN105: Real Time Wire Gauge Measurement

This application note describes how a Microohmmeter with offset voltage compensation can assist a manufacturer or processor of electrical wire to measure wire gauge in real time and cost effectively meet the DC Resistance measurements requirements of UL2556.


AN106: Inductive Measurements with a TEGAM Model 1750

Application Note 106 describes a method of compensating the TEGAM Model 1750’s measurement circuit to be able to measure inductive test samples by connecting a capacitor.


AN107: Testing LCD Display Panels with the TEGAM Model 1750

The purpose of this Application Note is to describe how the unique features of TEGAM’s Model 1750 High-Speed, Precise, Programmable Microohmmeter assist in testing large LCD panels.


AN108: TEGAM Test Leads Compatible with Most Manufacturers’ Ohmmeters

Precision measurements require accurate, reliable connections all the way to the device under test. TEGAM manufactures precision instrumentation that measures with parts per million accuracy. TEGAM test leads work with most manufacturers’ four-wire ohmmeters.


AN109: Testing Aircraft Electrical Bonds Ensures Safety and Reliability, Improves System Performance

The bond test determines whether or not an electrical ground has been established between two points. Insuring that electrical bonds in the aircraft are of the highest quality requires the use of an instrument specifically designed to accurately measure very low resistance in demanding environments.


AN110: Bond Tester Helps Protect Wind Turbines from Lightning

Lightning strikes are a leading cause of damage to wind turbines even though they are designed with a lightning arrestor system that conducts the electricity from the tip of the blade, through the nacelle and down the tower to ground. A damaged turbine must be repaired before it can be returned to service generating electricity. Part of the repair includes replacing portions of the lightning arrestor system and verifying that it measures less than the specified resistance all while hanging in the air. This application notes describes a unique solution to the problem that makes it easier to perform this test with equipment that weighs far less than the alternatives.


AN222: Resistance Measurements of Small-Scale and Microscopic Material Samples and Components Using the TEGAM Model 1740

This application note describes a measurement system developed by TEGAM and a customer to make high-accuracy, four-wire milliohm measurements of small-scale or microscopic components and material samples utilizing the TEGAM 1740 microohmeter and a specialized test setup.


AN300: Verify Fenwal Temperature Sensing Elements

This application note provides a general overview of the Fenwal sensing elements and the test methodologies used in conjunction with the TEGAM Model 252 in accurately determining the condition of the sensors. A number of years ago, Fenwal Safety Systems evaluated several LCR meters and selected the TEGAM Model 252 and battery powered 252/SP2596 as their LCR meters-of-choice, for the testing of their temperature sensing elements.


AN301: LCR Meter Measurement Accuracy

LCR meters make taking L, C and R measurements very easy. However, if you want to be certain of the measurement that you have made, you must understand how an LCR meter operates and how the component being tested interacts with the meter.


AN303: The LCR Meter as an Impedance Analyzer

The LCR meter provides a simple and accurate way to measure impedance at a specific frequency point. Impedance analyzers are used to measure and plot the complex impedance of the device under test over a range of frequencies. TEGAM addressed this problem by designing an application which sweeps through user configurable frequency points on the Model 3550 LCR meter. The output is plotted and the measured values are also stored in an Excel file which can be used for further analysis.


AN304: Null Meter Application Guide Introduction

The TEGAM Null Meter Application Guides are written to assist both the new and experienced user of high-sensitivity Null Meters/Nano-Voltmeters. For the new user, the Application Guides provide a basic understanding of the fundamentals of measurement process that use Null Meters. For the experienced user, the Application Guides provide a refresher on fundamentals but more importantly help the user moving from the use an older model null meter to the TEGAM AVM-2000.


AN305: Input Bias Current Compensation

This Application Guide describes the sources of input bias current on a high sensitivity instruments such as a null meter, the impact input bias current can have on measurements and how the user compensates for input bias current to minimize its impact on measurements.


AN307: Noise Reduction and Filtering Techniques

This Application Guide discusses the use of filtering to improve null measurements when noise on the signal source makes measurements difficult or introduces error. This note also helps the experienced user compare a null meter with variable filtering with one that has fixed filtering.


AN308: High Sensitivity Bridge Connections

This Application Guide discusses suggested instrument interconnections and supplemental filtering to allow maximum resolution when the AVM-2000, or other very high sensitivity null meters, are used in conjunction with such instruments as Reference Dividers, Kelvin Varley Dividers and other high-impedance ratio dividers.


AN309: Input Offset Voltage Compensation

This Application Guide describes the sources of input offset voltage on a high sensitivity instruments such as a null meter, the impact input offset voltage can have on measurements and how the user compensates for input offset voltage to minimize its impact on measurements. The experienced user will find this discussion helpful in understanding potential differences in measurements between various null meters.


AN310: Rationalizing Null Readings at Low Levels

This Application Guide discusses the problems encountered when comparing nulls, especially nulls made in the micro-volt and nano-volt regions, between two null meters. Frequently minor differences between two different null meters, the minor differences between instrumentation setups and other environmental issues contribute to those differences. This Application Guide is written to help a null meter user rationalize the differences and to take corrective actions, where possible, to reduce the differences between readings.


AN311: Analog Meter Anti-Static Procedure

This Application Guide discusses the need and procedure for using an anti-static control solution on sensitive analog meter movements such as the one found in the AVM-2000 Nullmeter. Although common knowledge when most instruments used analog meter movements, the need to remind users of this procedure compensates for techniques lost in the world of digital displays.