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4040A+5122: Expanded Digitizer Range

The combination of the TEGAM 4040A Differential Amplifier and National Instruments 5122 Digitizer/Oscilloscope creates the widest range measurement system possible in a 3U PXI format.
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AN401: True vs. DDS Arbitrary Waveform Generators

The purpose of this application note is to provide an understanding of the basic differences between True and DDS Arbitrary Waveform Generators. With AWGs, there are two fundamental design variations: DDS (Direct Digital Synthesis) and True (Traditional) Arbitrary Waveform Generators. Each design variation has its own unique advantages and disadvantages. Because the application determines instrument…
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AN212: Constructing a 100mW RF Power Reference

Conventional calibrations typically take place in the 1mW to 10mW range. This range can be extended downwards for highly sensitive diode sensors by means of a calibrated attenuator. Raising the calibration level above 10mW is more of a challenge. This application note describes a basic technique for generating an accurate 100 mW power source.
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AN601: TEGAM Temperature Products Aid in Monitoring of Bed Bug Extermination

Bed bugs have quickly become a very important pest of the 21st century, as they have already invaded numerous urban areas including hotels, offices and residences. Increasing the room temperature up to 120-130 °F is found to be effective in killing bed bugs. The TEGAM 819A Series of Thermocouple Thermometer combined with an 8052 Thermocouple…
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AN603: Understanding the CAT Ratings on a Voltmeter

A voltmeter is a widely used instrument in the electrical industry, utilized to measure voltages at various circuit points mainly in order to troubleshoot a problem. As the modern industry continues its quest to keep electricians safe, new standards and test instruments designed with safety and convenience in mind continue to help make that possible.
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AN304: Null Meter Application Guide Introduction

The TEGAM Null Meter Application Guides are written to assist both the new and experienced user of high-sensitivity Null Meters/Nano-Voltmeters. For the new user, the Application Guides provide a basic understanding of the fundamentals of measurement process that use Null Meters. For the experienced user, the Application Guides provide a refresher on fundamentals but more…
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AN305: Input Bias Current Compensation

This Application Guide describes the sources of input bias current on a high sensitivity instruments such as a null meter, the impact input bias current can have on measurements and how the user compensates for input bias current to minimize its impact on measurements.
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AN309: Input Offset Voltage Compensation

This Application Guide describes the sources of input offset voltage on a high sensitivity instruments such as a null meter, the impact input offset voltage can have on measurements and how the user compensates for input offset voltage to minimize its impact on measurements. The experienced user will find this discussion helpful in understanding potential…
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AN310: Rationalizing Null Readings at Low Levels

This Application Guide discusses the problems encountered when comparing nulls, especially nulls made in the micro-volt and nano-volt regions, between two null meters. Frequently minor differences between two different null meters, the minor differences between instrumentation setups and other environmental issues contribute to those differences. This Application Guide is written to help a null meter…
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AN307: Noise Reduction and Filtering Techniques

This Application Guide discusses the use of filtering to improve null measurements when noise on the signal source makes measurements difficult or introduces error. This note also helps the experienced user compare a null meter with variable filtering with one that has fixed filtering.
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AN308: High Sensitivity Bridge Connections

This Application Guide discusses suggested instrument interconnections and supplemental filtering to allow maximum resolution when the AVM-2000, or other very high sensitivity null meters, are used in conjunction with such instruments as Reference Dividers, Kelvin Varley Dividers and other high-impedance ratio dividers.
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AN311: Analog Meter Anti-Static Procedure

This Application Guide discusses the need and procedure for using an anti-static control solution on sensitive analog meter movements such as the one found in the AVM-2000 Nullmeter. Although common knowledge when most instruments used analog meter movements, the need to remind users of this procedure compensates for techniques lost in the world of digital…
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AN110: Bond Tester Helps Protect Wind Turbines from Lightning

Lightning strikes are a leading cause of damage to wind turbines even though they are designed with a lightning arrestor system that conducts the electricity from the tip of the blade, through the nacelle and down the tower to ground. A damaged turbine must be repaired before it can be returned to service generating electricity.…
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AN220: Measuring RF Power Sensor Nonlinearity

RF power sensor linearity is a commonly misunderstood topic. To obtain the most accurate power measurements, though, you need to understand what linearity is, the sources of nonlinearity, and how to measure the linearity of your RF power sensors.
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AN221: Coaxial Flow Calorimeter

How Accurate Are Your RF Measurements? Accurate power measurements on RF signals require a thorough knowledge of the varying nature of the signals under test. We have obtained very good results with this system, improving the uncertainty of a 100W, 1GHz flow calorimeter to 0.43% of full scale. Using this system, through-line wattmeters can be…
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AN301: LCR Meter Measurement Accuracy

LCR meters make taking L, C and R measurements very easy. However, if you want to be certain of the measurement that you have made, you must understand how an LCR meter operates and how the component being tested interacts with the meter.
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AN502: Differential Amplifier Measurements

Making an accurate measurement requires an unbroken chain of signal integrity from the point of connection through the conversion to a numerical value. Application note 502 explains the benefits a differential amplifier provides in a measurement system.
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AN402: MEMS Optical Profiler

This application note describes how a customer used the TEGAM Model 2350 Dual Channel, High-Voltage amplifier to make a MEMS optical profiling system more effective, and how he applied the system to test and study the reliability of MEMS devices.
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AN105: Real Time Wire Gauge Measurement

This application note describes how a Microohmmeter with offset voltage compensation can assist a manufacturer or processor of electrical wire to measure wire gauge in real time and cost effectively meet the DC Resistance measurements requirements of UL2556.
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AN208: Microwave Receiver Linearity Verification

The linearity of an RF or microwave receiver is typically measured at its intermediate frequency. Nonlinearities at high signal levels due to mixer compression, and at low levels due to noise, are then specified as maximum error figures. This application note shows how linearity can be measured over a frequency range of 100kHz to 40GHz…
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AN213: Return Loss and VSWR Measurement Methods

Both VSWR and Return Loss are a measure of the divergence of a microwave device from a perfect impedance match. They are mathematically interchangeable and result from scalar measurements. This app note describes the use of a TEGAM System IIA Power Sensor Calibration System for VSWR and Return Loss measurements.
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AN216: Limitations of AM Leveling Loops

Characterizing RF power sensors is commonly done using a direct comparison system which employs a resistive RF power splitter with a power standard connected to a power meter. The microwave source is often maintained at a stable level with an external AM input. This application note discusses the limitations to this technique and some alternatives.
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AN300: Verify Fenwal Temperature Sensing Elements

This application note provides a general overview of the Fenwal sensing elements and the test methodologies used in conjunction with the TEGAM Model 252 in accurately determining the condition of the sensors. A number of years ago, Fenwal Safety Systems evaluated several LCR meters and selected the TEGAM Model 252 and battery powered 252/SP2596 as…
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AN302: Considerations for Selecting a Power Amplifier

This Application Note is intended to help individuals who are not power amplifier experts to understand the basic parameters such as Gain, Bandwidth (BW), Slew Rate (SR), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), Input Impedance and Current Limit necessary to properly select an amplifier for use in testing and experimentation.
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AN503: 4040A Stand Alone Instrumentation Amplifier

A differential instrumentation amplifier is an essential and versatile tool for use in various tests and experiments. For convenience, TEGAM offers a complete package that includes a 4040A instrumentation amplifier, LabVIEW control software and a PXI-1033 chassis.
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AN504: Increasing the differential voltage range of TEGAM 4040A

The TEGAM Model 4040A expands the measurement range of PXI digitizers and scopes from 2 mV to 100 V. Although this range appears fairly wide, there are some applications which require a wider range. The measurement range of a PXI system can be expanded up to 1200 Vpk by combining a TEGAM 4040A with x10…
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AN303: The LCR Meter as an Impedance Analyzer

The LCR meter provides a simple and accurate way to measure impedance at a specific frequency point. Impedance analyzers are used to measure and plot the complex impedance of the device under test over a range of frequencies. TEGAM addressed this problem by designing an application which sweeps through user configurable frequency points on the…
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